Green Energy Poland SA

2. RES against the background of energy market (global, European, Polish)

Renewable Energy Sources are one of the fastest growing areas in the power engineering sector. In 2008 approximately 19 % of global primary energy was derived from renewable sources. Dominant role in the global use of RES is biomass, from which currently is derived approximately 13 % of primary energy used mainly for heating purposes. Second place belongs to water-power plants which currently supply about 3,2 % of primary energy used in the form of electricity. Other renewable energy sources, like solar power, wind, geothermal and biofuels currently supply around 2,7 % of primary energy [1].

In 2008 around the world there was produced a total of 20260838 GWh of electricity of which 3851156 GWh was derived from RES, which represents 19 % of its total production.

The largest volume of production belongs to water-power plants, wind turbines and biomass power plants. At the same time there was produced 13260885 TJ (3683579 GWh) of thermal energy, of which 632,801 TJ (175778,1 GWh) was heat production from RES [2].

The fastest developing branches of renewable power engineering are: solar power engineering and wind power engineering, with 30 % of annual increase in installed capacity. In 2009 in the world there was installed 158 GW of power in wind turbines. The largest increase occurs in China, USA and European Union countries.

Such a large share of RES in the energy balance is caused mainly by the diversification of energy sources in individual countries, the depletion of resources of fossil fuels and environmental concern.

At the same time as the European Union has implemented a policy for renewable energy development as one of its main objectives. There has been developed a so called ”energy mix”, which involves:

• reducing greenhouse gas emission by 2020 for at least 20 % comparing to 1990

• rationalization of energy use and consequently reduction of consumption by 20 %

• increasing the share of RES in energy produced to 20 % of total average energy consumption in the EU in 2020

• achievement of at least 10 % share of biofuels in transport fuel sale in 2020 [3]

In terms of RES these targets are not the same and for each country they are as follows:

 

Table 1: Objectives of the EU Member States

The share of RES in final energy consumption in 2005 [in %]

The share of RES in final energy consumption in 2020 [in %]

Belgium

2,2

13

Bulgary

9,4

16

Czech Republic

6,1

13

Denmark

17

30

Germany

5,8

18

Estonia

18

25

Ireland

3,1

16

Greece

6,9

18

Spain

8,7

20

France

10,3

23

Italy

5,2

17

Cyprus

2,9

13

Latvia

32,6

40

Lithuania

15

23

Luxembourg

0,9

11

Hungary

4,3

13

Malta

0

10

Netherlands

2,4

14

Austria

23,3

34

Poland

7,2

15

Portugal

20,5

31

Romunia

17,8

24

Slovenia

16

25

Slovakia

6,7

14

Finland

28,5

38

Sweden

39,8

49

Great Britain 1,3 15

 

This goal is very ambitious and it is not certain if we can achieve it. Besides, even this achievement will not change the global impact of industry on the environment. In this case, similar action would lead by other large countries, notably the United States, China and India.


[1] http://zielonytelefon.eco.pl

[2] http://www.iea.org/stats

[3] Directive of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe  2009/28/EC of April 23, 2009 on the promotion of using energy from renewable sources.

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